Key: One of the most important lights. This highlights the main object. It´s usually included within a 3-point setup.
Fill: Also used in 3-point lighting setup and its purpose is to lessen contrast& shadows around the subject by being placed at a different angle to the main key light. It´s softer than the key light.
Standard 3-Point lighting:
Backlight: Creates a seperation of the character and the objects around or the backround. The lights is placed behind the subject.
High Key: Reduces the amount of contrast because it´s such strong lighting. Creates a happy, joyful impression in the picture or film.
Rim: This is similar to the back light, however is´s placed directly behind the subject and is quite strong.
Chiarosuro: Means there is a high contrast between light& dark in the picture. It´s used to create depth and volume.